Reading Passage – The atoms of each element are unique; no two elements have the same atomic number. Atoms also have the same number of electrons as it does protons. These electrons orbit the nucleus of the atom in layers called shells.
QUESTIONS: Chemical Bonds – The number of electrons in an atom's outer shell that are available to participate in the process of chemical bonding are called what?
Ionic Bonds – A single shell of any atom can only hold a particular number of electrons. Atoms tend to want to have a full outer shell, so when atoms that don’t have full outer shells come into contact with other atoms, their tendency is to give up or gain electrons in order to end up with a full outer shell.
QUESTIONS: Ionic Bonds – Complete the sentence: If the outer shell of an atom is mostly full...
Covalent Bonds – A single shell of any atom can only hold a particular number of electrons. The first shell can hold up to two electrons. The second shell can hold up to eight electrons. The third shell can hold up to eighteen electrons, and so on.
QUESTIONS: Covalent Bonds – The number of electrons in an atom's outer shell that are available to participate in chemical bonding are called what?
Polar Bonds – When atoms share electrons so that both will have a full outer shell, it is called covalent bonding. Chemical bonds can be classified as either polar or nonpolar depending on how the electrons in the bond are arranged.
QUESTIONS: Polar Bonds – In a pure (nonpolar) covalent bond in which two atoms share electrons (which have a negative charge) equally, why is the whole molecule neutral?
Metallic Bonds – The number of electrons in an atom's outer shell that are available to participate in the process of chemical bonding are called valence electrons. Metallic bonds take place between the valence electrons of one atom and the metal ions of another. In metallic bonds, atoms share detached electrons between many positive ions, with the force of attraction between the electrons and the positive metal ions keeping the molecule together and giving it its structure.
QUESTIONS: Metallic Bonds – The strong attraction between electrons and positive ions in metallic bonds results in what?
Intermolecular Forces – Intermolecular forces are forces that act between stable molecules or between groups of macromolecules (molecules that contains many atoms). Intermolecular forces are different from intramolecular forces (ionic, covalent, and metallic bonds), which act to bind the atoms within a single particle.
QUESTIONS: Intermolecular Forces – Which force (intermolecular or intramolecular) is the force that is responsible for ionic, covalent, and metallic bonds?
Intramolecular Forces or Chemical Bonding – An intramolecular force is a force that binds atoms together to form molecules or compounds. Another term for intramolecular force is "chemical bonding." Intramolecular forces are different from intermolecular forces, which act between stable molecules or between groups of macromolecules (molecules that contains many atoms).
QUESTIONS: Intramolecular Forces – Which intramolecular force occurs between a metal and a non-metal?
Chemical Bonds and Usable Energy – Our bodies use the food we eat for maintenance, construction, and energy. While proteins, vitamins, and minerals are primarily broken down into molecules to support maintenance and construction, the carbohydrates and fats we eat contain a large amount of stored energy.
QUESTIONS: Chemical Bonds and Usable Energy – Which of the three kinds of molecules you listed in your answer to #3 above is the one that attaches in different amounts to AMP, ADP, and ATP?
The Octet Rule – The word "octet" means "group of eight." The Octet rule was discovered by physical chemist Gilbert N. Lewis in 1916 as a part of his cubical atom theory. The Octet rule in chemistry says that every atom seeks to have eight valence electrons in its outer shell.
QUESTIONS: The Octet Rule – The kind of bond that occurs when one atom donates electrons to another is called what?
Endothermic and Exothermic Reactions – Chemical bonds are the source of all energy. Atoms bond together because they are seeking stability. As they bond, atoms move from a state of instability to a state of stability, and since it requires more energy to maintain something that is unstable, bonded atoms require less energy.
QUESTIONS: Endothermic and Exothermic Reactions – Why do bonded atoms require less energy?